Matters of Scale - After a Few Years of Globalization

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Percentage of World Bank "structural adjustment" loans to poor nations that included environmental goals as required by World Bank policy, in 1994
60 percent
Percentage that included environmental goals in 1999, according to the World Bank's own figures
20 percent
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Amount spent by U.S. teenagers in 1994
$63 billion
Amount spent by U.S. teenagers in 1999
over $100 billion
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Ratio of the average corporate CEO's pay to the average employee?s pay in 1978
60 to 1
Ratio in 1997
189 to 1
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Number of people employed by the multinational corporation General Electric in 1981
400,000
Number of people employed by GE in 1993, when the company's sales were three times their 1981 level
230,000
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Plywood exports from Indonesia and Malaysia (which contribute heavily to the deforestation of tropical habitats) in 1975
0.2 million cubic meters
. . . and in 1998
12.0 million cubic meters
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Sources: Structural adjustment loans: World Bank; Expenditures by teenagers: Peter Zollo, Wise Up to Teens: Insights Into Marketing and Advertising to Teenagers (New Strategist, 1999); Pay disparities: Ellen Schwartz and Suzanne Stoddard, Taking Back Our Lives in the Age of Corporate Dominance (Berrett-Koehler, 2000); GE downsizing: Jeremy Rifkin, et. al, The End of Work (Putnam, 1995); Plywood exports: Hilary French, Vanishing Borders: Protecting the Planet in the Age of Globalization (W.W. Norton, 2000).