Sources and Resources for "SCAMming Environmental Policy"

Margarita Alario and William R. Freudenburg, "The Paradoxes of Modernity: Scientific Advances, Environmental Problems, and Risks to the Social Fabric?" Sociological Forum 18 (#2, June 2003): 193-214.

Naomi Aronson, "Science as Claims-Making Activity: Implications for Social Problems Research." Pp. 1-30 in Joseph W. Schneider and John Kitsuse, eds., Studies in the Sociology of Social Problems. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex, 1984.

Andrew Austin and Laurel Phoenix, "The Neoconservative Assault on the Earth: TheEnvironmental Imperialism of the Bush Administration." Capitalism Nature Socialism 16 (#2, June 2005): 25-44.

Peter Bachrach and Morton S. Baratz. Power and Poverty. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1970.

John Bailar, "How to Distort the Scientific Record without Actually Lying." Presented at Coronado Conference III, "Truth and Advocacy: The Quality and Nature of Litigation and Regulatory Science," San Diego, March 10, 2006.

Marver H. Bernstein, Regulating Business By Independent Commission. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1955.

Fred Block, Revising State Theory: Essays in Politics and Postindustrialism. Philadelphia: Temple, 1987.

Seth Borenstein, "Scientists: Bush Administration Needs Plan to Tackle Global Warming." San Jose Mercury-News (July 24, 2003): A4.

--, "Forest Service's Plans Strip Out Environmental Protections, Critics Say." Miami Herald (Dec. 23, 2004): 10A (

Richard Harvey Brown, Toward a Democratic Science: Scientific Narration and Civic Communication. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 1998.

F. Bro-Rasmussen, "Precautionary Principle And/or Risk Assessment B A Penitence in Contemporary Political Culture." Environmental Science and Pollution Research 6(4), 1999: 188-p92.

Phil Brown, "Popular Epidemiology: Community Response to Toxic Waste-Induced Disease in Woburn, Massachusetts." Science, Technology and Human Values 12(3-4), 1987: 78-85.

--, "Popular Epidemiology Revisited." Current Sociology 45 (#3, July 1997): 137-56.

Phil Brown and Edwin J. Mikkelsen, No Safe Place: Toxic Waste, Leukemia, and Community Action. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1990.

Frederick H. Buttel, "Environmental quality and the state: Some political-sociological observations on environmental regulation." Research in Political Sociology 1:167-88, 1985.

Lynton K. Caldwell, Science and the National Environmental Policy Act: Redirecting Policy through Procedural Reform. University, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1982.

James Cameron and Juli Abochar, "The Precautionary Principle: A Fundamental Principle of Law and Policy for the Protection of the Global Environment." Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 14:1B27, 1991.

Maria F. Cavieres, James Jaeger, and Warren Porter, "Developmental Toxicity of a Commercial Herbicide Mixture in Mice: I. Effects on Embryo Implantation and Litter Size." Environmental Health Perspectives 110: 1081-85, 2002.

Simon Chapman, "We are Anxious to Remain Anonymous": The Use of Third Party Scientific and Medical Consultants by the Australian Tobacco Industry, 1969 to 1979." Tobacco Control 12 (supplement 3): 31-37, 2003.

Lee Clarke, Mission Improbable: Using Fantasy Documents to Tame Disaster. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers, Our Stolen Future: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence, and Survival? B A Scientific Detective Story. New York: Penguin, 1997.

Commonwealth of Australia, National Strategy of Sustainable Development. Canberra: AGPSS, 1992.

Congressional Research Service, The Toxic Substances Control Act: A Summary of the Act and its Major Requirements. CRS Report RL31905. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2003.

Costanza, Robert Costanza and Laura Cornwell, "The 4P approach to dealing with scientific uncertainty." Environment 34 (9), 1992.

Consumers Union of United States, Inc., A Report Card for the EPA: Successes and Failures in Implementing the Food Quality Protection Act. Yonkers, NY: Consumers Union, 2001.

Paul Craig, "Formal and Substantive Conceptions of the Rule of Law: An Analytical Framework." Public Law 467-87, 1997.

Matthew A. Crenson, The Un-Politics of Air Pollution: A Study of Non-Decisionmaking in the Cities. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971.

Debra J. Davidson, "Federal Policy in Local Context: State-Societal Relations and the Endangered Species Act." Policy Studies Review 17(3):212-240, 2001.

--, "Risk in the Redwoods: Contending for Normalcy in Timber Country." Journal of Risk Research 6(3):253-266, 2001.

Paul K. Dayton, "Reversal of the Burden of Proof in Fisheries Management." Science 279 (6 February 1998): 821-22.

Thomas R. Dietz, Scott Frey, and Eugene A. Rosa, "Risk, Technology and Society." Pp. 329-69 in Riley E. Dunlap and William Michelson, eds., Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2002.

Elaine Draper, Risky Business: Genetic Testing and Exclusionary Practices in the Hazardous Workplace. New York: Cambridge, 1991.

Environmental Research Foundation, "History of precaution B Part 1.@ Environmental Research Foundation, Rachel=s Environment and Health News, March 27, 1997.

--, "History of precaution B Part 2.@ Environmental Research Foundation, Rachel=s Environment and Health News, April 4, 1997.

EWG (Environmental Working Group) Action Fund, The Asbestos Epidemic in America. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Working Group, 2004. On web at

R. Fallon, "The Ideology of Bureaucracy in American Law." Columbia Law Review 97: 1-56, 1997.

John Finnis, Natural Law and Natural Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Mark Fiore, "Twelve Conservative Foundations Shift Agenda for Policy Research, Report Says." The Chronicle of Higher Education (July 11, 1997): A29.

Dana R. Fisher, National Governance and the Global Climate Change Regime. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.

Elizabeth Fisher, "Changing the Mindset? Implementing the Precautionary Principle in Australia." Research in Social Problems and Public Policy 7: 183-98, 1999.

William R. Freudenburg, "Privileged Access, Privileged Accounts: Toward a Socially Structured Theory of Resources and Discourses." Social Forces 94 (1): 89-114, 2005.

William R. Freudenburg and Kenneth M. Keating, "Applying sociology to policy: Social science and the environmental impact statement." Rural Sociology 50(4):578-605, 1985.

William R. Freudenburg and Susan K. Pastor, "Public responses to technological risks: Toward a sociological perspective." Sociological Quarterly 33 (#3, August 1992):389-412.

Silvio Funtowicz and Jerome R. Ravetz, "Three Types of Risk Assessment and Emergence of Post-Normal Science." Pp. 251-97 in S. Krimsky and D. Golding, eds., Social Theories of Risk. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992.

Ross Gelbspan, The Heat Is On. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1997.

Anthony Giddens, The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990.

Stanton A. Glantz, John Slade, Lisa A. Bero, Peter Hanauer, and Deborah E. Barnes, eds., The Cigarette Papers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Joseph R. Gusfield, The Culture of Public Problems: Drinking‑driving and the Symbolic Order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

John A. Hannigan, Environmental Sociology: A Social Constructionist Perspective. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Ronnie Harding, Michael Young, and Elizabeth Fisher, Interpretation of the Principles: Sustainability Principles to Practice. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 1996.

Richard Harris, "Cigarette Company Documents: Part III - Academic Studies." Transcript from All Things Considered (June 16, 1994). Washington, D.C.: National Public Radio.

Harrison, Kathryn Harrison, "Between Science and Politics: Assessing the Risks of Dioxins in Canada and the United States." Policy Sciences 24: 367-88, 1991.

Dale Hattis and Elizabeth L. Anderson, "What Should Be the Implications of Uncertainty, Variability, and Inherent 'Biases'/ 'Conservatism' for Risk Management Decision-Making?" Risk Analysis, 19(1):95-107.

Hilts, Philip J. Hilts, "Tobacco Company Was Silent on Hazards." New York Times (May 7, 1994): A1.

--, Smokescreen: The Truth Behind the Tobacco Industry Cover‑up. Reading, MA: Addison‑Wesley, 1996.

Peter Huber, "FDA Caution Can Be Deadly." Wall Street Journal (July 24, 1998). On-line at

James M. Inhofe, "An Update on the Science of Climate Change." Congressional Record (Jan. 4, 2005): S18.

Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Seafood Safety. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 1991.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Second Assessment Report B Climate Change 1995. Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1995.

--, IPCC Third Assessment Report: Contributions of IPCC Working Groups. Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001.

Jasanoff, Sheila Jasanoff, "EPA's Regulation of Daminozide: Unscrambling the Messages of Risk." Science, Technology and Human Values 12 (#3-4): 116-24, 1987.


--, The Fifth Branch: Science Advisers as Policymakers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Kaufman, Herbert. 1960 The Forest Ranger: A Study in Administrative Behavior. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins.

Eli Kintisch, "Climate Change: Global Warming Skeptic Argues U.S. Position in Suit." Science 308 (April 22, 2005): 482.

Jamie Lincoln Kitman, "The Secret History of Lead. The Nation, March 20, 2000.

Eric Klinenberg, Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Jeff Krehely, Meaghan House, and Emily Kernan, Axis of Ideology: Conservative Foundations and Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Responsive Philanthropy, 2004.

B. Latour and S. Woolgar, Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Les Levidow, "Sound Science as Ideology." International Journal of Biotechnology 2(1): 257-273, 2000.

Bill Lockyer, "People of the State of California, ex rel. Bill Lockyer, Attorney General, Plaintiff, v. United States Department of Agrigulture et al., Defendants, Complaint for Declarative and Summary Relief." U.S. District Court for Eastern District of California, Sacramento, 2005 (also ).

Theodore J. Lowi, "The Welfare State, the New Regulation, and the Rule of Law." In Distributional Conflicts in Environmental-Resource Policy, Allan Schnaiberg, Nicholas Watts and Klaus Zimmerman, eds., 109-49. New York: St. Martin's, 1986.

Gerald Markowitz and David Rosner, Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Glen Martin, "California Sues Over Sierra Nevada Logging Expansion." San Francisco Chronicle (Feb. 2, 2005). (

Grant McConnell, Private Power and American Democracy. New York: Random House, 1970.

A.J. McMichael, "Standardized Mortality Ratios and the 'Healthy Worker Effect': Scratching Beneath the Surface." Journal of Occupational Medicine 18 (#3, March 1976):165-8.

Aaron M. McCright and Riley E. Dunlap, "Challenging Global Warming as a Social Problem: An Analysis of the Conservative Movement's Counter-Claims." Social Problems 47 (#4, 2000): 499-522.

--, "Defeating Kyoto: The Conservative Movement's Impact on U.S. Climate-Change Policy." Social Problems 50 (2003).

Thomas O. McGarity, "Some Thoughts on 'Deossifying' the Rulemaking Process." Duke Law Journal 41: 1385-1462, 1992.

O. McIntyre and T. Mosedale, "The Precautionary Principle as a Norm of Customary International Law." Journal of Environmental Law 9(2):221-241, 1997.

Colin McMullan and John Eyles, "Risky Business: An Analysis of Claimsmaking in the Development of an Ontario Drinking Water Objective for Tritium." Social Problems 46 (#2, 1999): 294-311.

Al Meyerhoff, "Trade Secrets: A Moyers Report: Interview Transcript" 2001 (on-line at

Alex Milne, "The Perils of Green Pessimism." New Scientist, June 12, 1993.

Bill Moyers, "Trade Secrets." Moyers Report Program Transcript. Washington, D.C.: Public Broadcasting Service, 2002 (online at

National Academy of Sciences, Toxicity Testing. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1984.

--, Climate Change Science. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2001.

--, Joint Science Academies Statement: Global Response to Climate Change. Washington, D.C., 2005.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Health Hazard Evaluation 83-360-1495 Chester Fire Department, Chester, PA. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control, 1983.

Natural Resources Defense Council, The Leaded Gas Scare of the 1920s. Washington, D.C., 1997 (online at

Herbert L. Needleman, "The removal of lead from gasoline: Historical and personal reflections.@ Environmental Research, Section A (84):20-35, 2000.

Tim O'Riordan and James Cameron, "The History and Contemporary Significance of the Precautionary Principle." In T. O'Riordan and J. Cameron, Interpreting the Precautionary Principle, London: Earthscan Publications, 1994.

Tim O'Riordan and Andrew Jordan, "The Precautionary Principle in Contemporary Environmental Politics." Environmental Values 4:191, 1995.

Peter Overby, "Lobby Groups Stall Implementation of the Food Quality Protection Act Using Many Different Techniques." Washington, D.C.: All Things Considered, National Public Radio, August 22, 2000.

J.R. Pegg, "GOP Senators Blame Nature for Climate Change." Washington, D.C.: Environmental News Service, July 29, 2003.

Randall M. Peterman and Michael M'Gonigle, "Statistical Power Analysis and the Precautionary Principle." Marine Pollution Bulletin 24(5):231‑234, 1992.

Karl R. Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Basic Books, 1959.

Theodore M. Porter, Trust in Numbers. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Tony Pugh, "Study faults prescriptions filled abroad: Go generic, not to Canada, U.S. report concludes." Detroit Free Press (December 22, 2004): A1.

Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber, Trust Us, We're Experts!: How Industry Manipulates Science and Gambles with Your Future. New York: Tarcher/Putnam, 2001.

Tony Reichhardt, "Tight Deadlines and Data Gaps Fan Fight on Pesticide Safety." Nature 396 (November 19, 1998): 207.

Andrew C. Revkin, "Bush White House Concedes CO2 Causes Warming: White House Shifts Its Focus on Climate." New York Times (August 26, 2004): A18.

--, "Official Played Down Emissions' Links to Global Warming." New York Times (June 7, 2005).

David Roe, William Pease, Karen Florini, and Ellen Silbergeld, Toxic Ignorance: The Continuing Absence of Basic Health Testing for Top-Selling Chemicals in the United States. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Defense Fund, 1997.

David Rosner and Gerald Markowitz, "A `Gift of God'?: The Public Health Controversy over Leaded Gasoline During the 1920s." American Journal of Public Health 75 (#4, April 1985): 344-52.

Paul Sabatier, "Social movements and regulatory agencies: Toward a more adequate B and less pessimistic B theory of `clientele capture'." Policy Sciences 6: 301-42, 1975.

Linda Schierow, Summaries of Environmental Laws Administered by the EPA: Toxic Substances Control Act, CRS Report RL30022. Washington, D.C. Congressional Research Service, 2003.

Paul A. Schulte, Richard L. Ehrenberg and Mitchell Singal, "Investigation of Occupational Cancer Clusters: Theory and Practice." American Journal of Public Health 77 (#1, January 1987): 52-56.

Philip Selznick, TVA and the Grass Roots: A Study in the Sociology of Formal Organization. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1949.

James Shanahan and Craig Trumbo, "Voices and Messages in Global Climate Change Coverage." Paper presented at International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, Columbia, MO, May 1998.

Mark Shapiro, "New Power for 'Old Europe.'" The Nation (December 27, 2004).

Neal Shover, Donald A. Clelland, and John Lynxwiler, Developing a Regulatory Bureaucracy: The Office of Surface Mining and Enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Deptartment of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1983.

Paul Stein, "Turning Soft Law Into Hard: An Australian Experience with ESD Principles in Practice." Paper presented at International Environmental Conference on Codifying the Rio Principles in National Legislation, The Hague, 22-24 May, 1996.

George J. Stigler, The Citizen and the State: Essays on Regulation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.

Clarence N. Stone, "Systemic power in community decision making: A restatement of stratification theory." American Political Science Review 74:978-90, 1980.

Robin Stryker, "Government Regulation." In Encyclopedia of Sociology, Edgar F. Borgatta, ed., 778-84. New York: Macmillan, 1991.

Alexander Tabarrok, "Excess FDA Caution Threatens Health." Providence Journal (August 23, 2001), online at

Sylvia N. Tesh, Uncertain Hazards: Environmental Activists and Scientific Proof. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Craig Trumbo, "Constructing Climate Change: Claims and Frames in US News Coverage of an Environmental Issue." Public Understanding of Science 5 (#3, July 1996): 269-83.

--, "Risk, Rhetoric, and the Reactor Next Door." Pp. 191-223 in Nancy W. Coppola and Bill Karls, eds., Technical Communication, Deliberative Rhetoric, and Environmental Discourse: Connections and Directions. Stamford, CT: Ablex, 2000.

--, "Public Requests for Cancer Cluster Investigations: A Survey of State Health Departments." American Journal of Public Health 90 (#8, August 2000): 1300-02.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process: EPA QA/G-4. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA/600/R-96/055, 2000.

Kenneth E. Warner, Selling Smoke: Cigarette Advertising and Public Health. Washington, DC: APHA Health Policy Monograph Series, 1986.

Alvin Weinberg, "Science and trans-science." Minerva 10 (#2, April 1972):209-22.

--, "Science and its Limits: The Regulator's Dilemma." Issues in Science and Technology 2:59-72, 1985.

Patrick C. West, Natural Resource Bureaucracy and Rural Poverty: A Study in Political Sociology of Natural Resources. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan School of Natural Resources, 1982.

Will Wright, Wild Knowledge: Science, Language, and Social Life in a Fragile Environment. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

Ernest L. Wynder and Evarts A. Graham, "Tobacco Smoking as a Possible Etiolotic Factor in Bronchiogenic Carcinoma." Journal of the American Medical Association 143 (4, May 27, 1950): 329-38.

Brian Wynne, Rationality and Ritual: The Windscale Inquiry and Nuclear Decisions in Britain. Chalfont St. Giles: British Society for the History of Science, 1982.

--, "Risk and Social Learning: Reification to Engagement." Pp. 275-97 in Sheldon Krimsky and Dominic Golding, eds., Social Theories of Risk. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992.

Steven Yearley, "The Social Construction of Environmental Problems: A Theoretical Review and Some Not-Very-Herculean Labours." Pp. 274-85 in Riley E. Dunlap, Frederick H. Buttel, Peter Dickens, and August Gijswijt, eds., Sociological Theory and the Environment: Classical Foundations, Contemporary Insights. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002.
Purchase a PDF of the entire May/June issue of World Watch, or subscribe or renew to World Watch Magazine. Current subscribers, log in and download this issue, and past issues of World Watch.